Sunday, 30 August 2015

Deep learning 01--opencv, eigen and softmax regression, part 2--implementation details of softmax

    This post will record some implementation details of softmax regression, I will map the equation introduced by UFLDL(all of the images are come from here) and source codes on this post.

    First of all, to finish the classification tasks, we need a train function to train the data.

 * @brief Train the input data by softmax algorithm
 * @param train Training data, input contains one\n
 *  training example per column
 * @param labels The label of each training example
template<typename T>
void softmax<T>::train(const Eigen::Ref<const EigenMat> &train,
                       const std::vector<int> &labels)
    //#1 generate unique labels, because we need the
    //NumClass and generate the ground truth table
    auto const UniqueLabels = get_unique_labels(labels);
    auto const NumClass = UniqueLabels.size();
    //#2 initialize weight and gradient
    weight_ = EigenMat::Random(NumClass, train.rows());
    grad_ = EigenMat::Zero(NumClass, train.rows());

    //#3 initialize ground truth
    auto const TrainCols = static_cast<int>(train.cols());
    EigenMat const GroundTruth = get_ground_truth(NumClass, TrainCols,

    //#4 create the random generator for mini-batch algorithm
    std::random_device rd;
    std::default_random_engine re(rd());
    int const Batch = (get_batch_size(TrainCols));
    int const RandomSize = TrainCols != Batch ?
                TrainCols - Batch - 1 : 0;
            uni_int(0, RandomSize);
    for(size_t i = 0; i != params_.max_iter_; ++i){
        auto const Cols = uni_int(re);
        auto const &TrainBlock =
                train.block(0, Cols, train.rows(), Batch);
        auto const &GTBlock =
                GroundTruth.block(0, Cols, NumClass, Batch);
        //#5 compute the cost of the cost function
        auto const Cost = compute_cost(TrainBlock, weight_, GTBlock);
        //#6 break the loop if meet the criteria
        if(std::abs(params_.cost_ - Cost) < params_.epsillon_ ||
                Cost < 0){
        params_.cost_ = Cost;
        //#7 compute gradient
        compute_gradient(TrainBlock, GTBlock);
        //#8 update weight
        weight_.array() -= grad_.array() * params_.lrate_;

    The most complicated part is #5 and #7, other part is trivial. To make #5 work, I need to finish the cost function(graph_00) and gradient descent(graph_01).

    We can notice the hypothesis part(rounded by red suqare) may introduce very large value, this may cause the problem of overflow, to prevent this, we can do some preprocessing on it. The solution of UFLDL is subtract the largest large constant value from each of the \theta_j^T x^{(i)} terms before computing the exponential, this is trivial to be done in Eigen.

template<typename T>
void softmax<T>::compute_hypothesis(Eigen::Ref<const EigenMat> const &train,
                                    Eigen::Ref<const EigenMat> const &weight)
    hypothesis_.noalias() = weight * train;
    max_exp_power_ = hypothesis_.colwise().maxCoeff();
    for(size_t i = 0; i != hypothesis_.cols(); ++i){
        hypothesis_.col(i).array() -= max_exp_power_(0, i);

    hypothesis_ = hypothesis_.array().exp();
    weight_sum_ = hypothesis_.array().colwise().sum();
    for(size_t i = 0; i != hypothesis_.cols(); ++i){
        if(weight_sum_(0, i) != T(0)){
            hypothesis_.col(i) /= weight_sum_(0, i);
    //prevent feeding 0 to log function
    hypothesis_ = (hypothesis_.array() != 0 ).
            select(hypothesis_, T(0.1));

    After I have the hypothesis matrix, I can compute the cost and the gradient at ease.

template<typename T>
double softmax<T>::compute_cost(const Eigen::Ref<const EigenMat> &train,
                                const Eigen::Ref<const EigenMat> &weight,
                                const Eigen::Ref<const EigenMat> &ground_truth)
    compute_hypothesis(train, weight);
    double const NSamples = static_cast<double>(train.cols());
    return  -1.0 * (hypothesis_.array().log() *
                    ground_truth.array()).sum() / NSamples +
            weight.array().pow(2.0).sum() * params_.lambda_ / 2.0;

template<typename T>
void softmax<T>::compute_gradient(Eigen::Ref<const EigenMat> const &train,
                                  Eigen::Ref<const EigenMat> const &weight,
                                  Eigen::Ref<const EigenMat> const &ground_truth)
    grad_.noalias() =
            (ground_truth.array() - hypothesis_.array())
            .matrix() * train.transpose();
    auto const NSamples = static_cast<double>(train.cols());
    grad_.array() = grad_.array() / -NSamples +
            params_.lambda_ * weight.array();

   The test results could see on this post.